What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Che cosa e psicoterapia

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to increase each individual’s well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and timprove relationships and social functioning. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders.

In adults, CBT has been shown to have effectiveness and a role in the treatment plans for anxiety disorders, depression,eating disorders, chronic low back pain, personality disorders, psychosis, schizophrenia, substance use disorders,in the adjustment, depression, and anxiety associated with fibromyalgia, and with post-spinal cord injuries.Evidence has shown CBT is effective in helping treat schizophrenia, and it is now offered in most treatment guidelines.

A 2010 meta-analysis found that no trial employing both blinding and psychological placebo has shown CBT to be effective in either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and that the effect size of CBT was small in major depressive disorder. They also found a lack of evidence to conclude that CBT was effective in preventing relapses in bipolar disorder.Evidence that severe depression is mitigated by CBT is also lacking, with anti-depressant medications still viewed as significantly more effective than CBT, although success with CBT for depression was observed beginning in the 1990s.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is most closely allied with the scientist–practitioner model in which clinical practice and research is informed by a scientific perspective, clear operationalization of the problem, and an emphasis on measurement, including measuring changes in cognition and behavior and in the attainment of goals. These are often met through “homework” assignments in which the patient and the therapist work together to craft an assignment to complete before the next session. The completion of these assignments – which can be as simple as a person suffering from depression attending some kind of social event – indicates a dedication to treatment compliance and a desire to change.The therapists can then logically gauge the next step of treatment based on how thoroughly the patient completes the assignment. Effective cognitive behavioral therapy is dependent on a therapeutic alliance between the healthcare practitioner and the person seeking assistance.Unlike many other forms of psychotherapy, the patient is very involved in CBT. For example, an anxious patient may be asked to talk to a stranger as a homework assignment, but if that is too difficult, he or she can work out an easier assignment first.The therapist needs to be flexible and willing to listen to the patient rather than acting as an authority figure.

Taken from Wikipedia